Ferdinand Gregorovius THE BORGIAS (Special eBook Edition) THE LIFE OF LUCREZIA BORGIA
The Bestselling Definitive Biography and History of the Original Crime Family: The Borgias | Lucrezia Borgia
"Lucrezia Borgia is the most unfortunate woman in modern history. Is this because she was guilty of the most hideous crimes, or is it simply because she has been unjustly condemned by the world to bear its curse? The question has never been answered. Mankind is ever ready to discover the personification of human virtues and human vices in certain typical characters found in history and fable.
The Borgias will never cease to fascinate the historian and the psychologist. An intelligent friend of mine once asked me why it was that everything about Alexander VI, Cesare, and Lucrezia Borgia, every little fact regarding their lives, every newly discovered letter of any of them, aroused our interest much more than did anything similar concerning other and vastly more important historic characters. I know of no better explanation than the following: the Borgias had for background the Christian Church; they made their first appearance issuing from it; they used it for their advancement; and the sharp contrast of their conduct with the holy state makes them appear altogether fiendish. The Borgias are a satire on a great form or phase of religion, debasing and destroying it. They stand on high pedestals, and from their presence radiates the light of the Christian ideal. In this form we behold and recognize them. We view their acts through a medium which is permeated with religious ideas. Without this, and placed on a purely secular stage, the Borgias would have fallen into a position much less conspicuous than that of many other men, and would soon have ceased to be anything more than representatives of a large species ...
Victor Hugo painted her as a moral monster, in which form she still treads the operatic stage, and this is the conception which mankind in general have of her. The lover of real poetry regards this romanticist's terrible drama of Lucrezia Borgia as a grotesque manifestation of the art, while the historian laughs at it; the poet, however, may excuse himself on the ground of his ignorance, and of his belief in a myth which had been current since the publication of Guicciardini's history."
ABOUT LUCREZIA BORGIA
Lucrezia Borgia (18 April 1480 – 24 June 1519) was the illegitimate daughter of Rodrigo Borgia, the powerful Renaissance Valencian who later became Pope Alexander VI, and Vannozza dei Cattanei. Her brothers included Cesare Borgia, Giovanni Borgia, and Gioffre Borgia.
Lucrezia's family later came to epitomize the ruthless Machiavellian politics and sexual corruption alleged to be characteristic of the Renaissance Papacy. Lucrezia was cast as a femme fatale, a role she has been portrayed as in many artworks, novels, and films.
Very little in fact is known of Lucrezia, and the extent of her complicity in the political machinations of her father and brothers is unclear. They certainly arranged several marriages for her to important or powerful men in order to advance their own political ambitions. Lucrezia was married to Giovanni Sforza (Lord of Pesaro), Alfonso of Aragon (Duke of Bisceglie), and Alfonso I d'Este (Duke of Ferrara). Tradition has it that Alfonso of Aragon was an illegitimate son of the King of Naples and that Cesare may have had him murdered after his political value waned.
Ferdinand Gregorovius Questo volume, al quale altri faranno seguito, fa parte di un'opera geniale, ma poco nota fra noi, del Gregorovius, «Wanderjahre in Italien», che nel testo tedesco comprende ben cinque volumi, editi dal Brockhaus di Lipsia. Di essa apparvero già in Italia, molto tempo addietro, frammenti, capitoli isolati, ma—non sappiamo veramente per quale motivo—mai se ne tentò l'intera traduzione.
Charles River Editors, Ferdinand Gregorovius, Raphael Sabatini & Arnold H. Mathew Includes:
•Charles River Editors’ original biographies of Lucrezia, Cesare, and Rodrigo Borgia
•Ferdinand Gregorovius’ biography of Lucrezia
•Raphael Sabatini’s The Life of Cesare Borgia
•Arnold Mathew’s The Life and Times of Rodrigo Borgia , Pope Alexander VI
“Alexander never did what he said.
Cesare never said what he did.” – Italian Proverb
The stories and legends attributed to the Borgias have made them one of the most notorious families in history. 500 years after their deaths, they have come to be associated more with incest, political intrigue, murder and state-sponsored violence. While 21st century TV series have cast the Borgias as the first organized crime family, the rumors spread by the family’s political opponents in the late 15th century have taken hold among a fascinated public. Did Cesare really have an incestuous relationship with sister Lucrezia? Did the pope really throw lavish orgies?
While Rodrigo may not have been as colorful or criminal as the enduring legends, there is no question he was manipulative, ruthless and, ultimately, effective. From an administrative standpoint, Rodrigo was a success as Pope Alexander VI, with a big assist from son Cesare. In one of the most famous political treatises in history, Niccolo Machiavelli famously advises those who hold power that it is better to be feared than loved. Though he uses Cesare as a cautionary tale about acquiring power through the good-will and powers of another person (his father, Pope Alexander VI), it is clear in The Prince that Machiavelli holds out Cesare as a skillful, effective ruler and administrator. In many ways, Cesare has been characterized as the “prince” Machiavelli tells his readers to be. As one translator of The Prince put it, Cesare is “cited as a type of the man who rises on the fortune of others, and falls with them; who takes every course that might be expected from a prudent man but the course which will save him; who is prepared for all eventualities but the one which happens; and who, when all his abilities fail to carry him through, exclaims that it was not his fault, but an extraordinary and unforeseen fatality.”
The world has always had a fascination with femme fatales, and few historical women have ever been portrayed as one quite like Lucrezia Borgia. Lucrezia is a baseless, immoral villain in Victor Hugo’s Lucrezia Borgia, and she continues to be depicted as a schemer and manipulator on par with her famous brother and father in film and critically acclaimed television series. Indeed, it would be hard to find another woman in the historical record who is remembered in any way comparable to the legacy of Lucrezia that remains nearly 500 years after her death.
The great irony is that Lucrezia’s reputation seems to be wildly at odds with the actual woman herself. Though political opponents of the Borgias successfully portrayed Lucrezia as an incestuous schemer, Lucrezia was unusually moral for a powerful woman during the Renaissance. Aside from adultery, hardly unusual in that era, Lucrezia proved to be both an efficient and benevolent ruler when her husband was away from Ferrara, and the two of them had an unusually close and loving relationship in an era where political marriages were made out of convenience, not love. The Ultimate Borgia Collection chronicles the lives, intrigues, myths and legends of the three most famous members of the family: Rodrigo, Cesare, and Lucrezia. Along with an original biography of the three of them, this collection includes a biography of each one separately, and it also includes pictures and a Table of Contents.
Ferdinand Gregorovius This file includes: Lucretia Borgia by Ferinand Gregorovius, The Borigas by Alexandre Dumas, and The Prince by Nicolo Machiavelli. According to Wikipedia: "The Borgias, also known as the Borjas, "Borjia," "Borghetti" and "Bourghesse" were a European Papal family of Béarnaise origin with the name stemming from the familial fief seat of Borja belonging to their Aragonese Lords; they became prominent during the Renaissance. The Borgias were patrons of the arts; thanks to their support, artists of the Renaissance could 'spread their wings' and realize their artistic potential. The most brilliant personalities of this era regularly visited their court. The Borgias became prominent in ecclesiastical and political affairs in the 1400s and 1500s. Today they are remembered for their corrupt rule when one of them was Pope. They have been accused of many different crimes, including adultery, simony, theft, rape, bribery, incest, and murder (especially murder by arsenic poisoning). Because of their search for power, they made enemies of other powerful families such as the Medici and the Sforza, as well as the influential Dominican friar Savonarola.”
Ferdinand Gregorovius Ferdinand Gregorovius (18211891) was a German historian who wrote a lot on medieval Rome. Gregorovius wrote many biographies with the best known being on Lucretia Borgia and Pope Alexander VI. A table of contents is included.
Ferdinand Gregorovius Classic biography. According to Wikipedia: "Lucrezia Borgia (18 April 1480 – 24 June 1519) was the illegitimate daughter of Rodrigo Borgia, the powerful Renaissance Valencian who later became Pope Alexander VI, and Vannozza dei Cattanei. Her brothers included Cesare Borgia, Giovanni Borgia, and Gioffre Borgia. Lucrezia's family later came to epitomize the ruthless Machiavellian politics and sexual corruption alleged to be characteristic of the Renaissance Papacy. Lucrezia was cast as a femme fatale, a role she has been portrayed as in many artworks, novels, and films. Very little in fact is known of Lucrezia, and the extent of her complicity in the political machinations of her father and brothers is unclear. They certainly arranged several marriages for her to important or powerful men in order to advance their own political ambitions. Lucrezia was married to Giovanni Sforza (Lord of Pesaro), Alfonso of Aragon (Duke of Bisceglie), and Alfonso I d'Este (Duke of Ferrara). Tradition has it that Alfonso of Aragon was an illegitimate son of the King of Naples and that Cesare may have had him murdered after his political value waned.”
Ferdinand Gregorovius & Mary E. Robinson The GENERAL HISTORICAL collection includes books from the British Library digitised by Microsoft. This varied collection includes material that gives readers a 19th century view of the world. Topics include health, education, economics, agriculture, environment, technology, culture, politics, labour and industry, mining, penal policy, and social order.
Ferdinand Gregorovius Dieses eBook: "Geschichte der Stadt Rom im Mittelalter vom V. bis zum XVI. Jahrhundert (Vollständige Ausgabe)" ist mit einem detaillierten und dynamischen Inhaltsverzeichnis versehen und wurde sorgfältig korrekturgelesen.
Ferdinand Gregorovius (1821-1891) war ein deutscher Schriftsteller und Historiker. Zur Geschichte der Stadt Rom sind seine Beiträge für die Geschichtswissenschaft diejenigen die wichtigsten, die das Zeitalter der Renaissance und des Humanismus betreffen. Neben Jacob Burckhardt und Alfred von Reumont ist er die Autorität der deutschen Renaissanceforschung des 19. Jahrhunderts. Die Geschichte der Stadt Rom im Mittelalter gilt als Klassiker der Literatur über die Renaissance. Außer diesem bekannten Werk gehört in dieses Zeitalter seine Biographie zu Papst Alexander VI. und zu Lucretia Borgia. Nicht weniger bedeutsam, aber weniger bekannt sind seine Schriften zur griechischen Geschichte in byzantinischer Zeit oder auch von Athen im Mittelalter.
Vom Beginn des V. Jahrhunderts bis zum Untergang des westlichen Reichs im Jahre 476
Vom Beginn der Herrschaft des Königs Odoaker bis zur Einrichtung ds Exarchats in Ravenna im Jahre 568
Vom Beginn der Regierung des Exarchen bis auf den Anfang des VIII. Jahrhunderts
Vom Pontifikat Gregors II. im Jahre 715 bis auf die Kaiserkrönung Karls im Jahre 800
Die Stadt Rom in der Epoche der Karolinger bis zum Jahre 900
Geschichte der Stadt Rom im X. Jahrhundert
Geschichte der Stadt Rom im XI. Jahrhundert
Geschichte der Stadt Rom im XII. Jahrhundert
Geschichte der Stadt Rom im XIII. Jahrhundert von der Regierung Innozenz' III. bis zum Jahre 1260
Geschichte der Stadt Rom vom Jahre 1260-1305
Geschichte der Stadt Rom im XIV. Jahrhundert vom Jahre 1305 bis 1354
Geschichte der Stadt Rom vom Jahre 1355-1420
Geschichte der Stadt Rom im XV. Jahrhundert
Geschichte der Stadt Rom in den ersten drei Dezennien des XVI. Jahrhunderts
Ferdinand Gregorovius 1889 erschien die "Geschichte der Stadt Athen im Mittelalter" in zwei Bänden: eine nach allgemeinem Urteil in jeder Hinsicht vollendete Meisterleistung, beruhend auf mehrjähriger, eindringendster Arbeit und selbständiger Forschung in den Archiven Venedigs, Neapels, Palermos, wie auf umfassender Verwertung des gedruckten Materials - gleich ausgezeichnet durch die geniale Bezwingung des ungemein spröden Stoffes, der die Gefahr öder, langweiliger Zersplitterung und Detailmalerei in sich barg, wie durch die künstlerische Gestaltungskraft, welche neben der politischen Geschichte auch die übrigen kulturellen Faktoren, die geistigen und wirtschaftlichen Verhältnisse, die Bau- und Kunstgeschichte wieder in gleicher Weise berücksichtigte, wie endlich durch die hier vorzüglich wirksame universal-historische Betrachtungsweise, welche eine Lokal- und Provinzialgeschichte zu einem Stück Weltgeschichte umschuf. Denn Athen war in der ersten Hälfte des Mittelalters unter der Herrschaft der byzantinischen Kaiser zu einer kleinen, ärmlichen Provinzialstadt herabgesunken und fristete auch nach 1204 unter der Herrschaft der Franken als Residenz eines Herzogs nur ein bescheidenes Leben. Um so glänzender bewährte sich auch hier die Eigenart von Gregorovius' Geschichtsschreibung, bei welcher der Künstler den Forscher ja beinahe übertrifft.
Ferdinand Gregorovius Sehr wichtig wurde für Gregorovius, dass er sich der römischen Geschichte zuwandte. Einerseits war es die Gestalt des humanen Kaisers Hadrian, andererseits die des finsteren Tiberius , welche den Historiker und den Dichter in G. reizten. 1851 veröffentlichte G., ermuntert durch den Historiker Drumann, seine Studien über die Epoche Hadrians unter dem Titel: "Geschichte des römischen Kaisers Hadrian und seiner Zeit", und diese Schrift ist, wie er selbst im Vorwort zu deren zweiter Auflage gesagt hat, für ihn "der Wegweiser nach Rom" geworden.
Ferdinand Gregorovius 1882 veröffentlichte Gregorovius die Monographie "Athenais, Geschichte einer byzantinischen Kaiserin", welcher die Übersetzung eines Gesangs ihres Gedichtes "Cyprianus und Justina" beigegeben ist, gewissermaßen "der ersten dichterischen Behandlung des Themas der Faustsage" (3. Aufl. 1892). Athenais war die geistvolle Tochter des heidnischen Philosophen Leontius, trat zum Christentum über, wurde als Gemahlin Theodosius' II. Kaiserin Eudokia (421 - 441 oder 444) und endete, seit 450 Witwe, ihr Leben ca. 460 zu Jerusalem im Exil. Ihre Geschichte interessierte G. um so mehr, als sie ihm "eine zweifache Metamorphose Griechenlands versinnbildlichte: den Übergang vom Heidentum in das Christentum und vom Hellenentum in das Byzantinertum". So konnte er mit der Erzählung der Geschicke der Athenais wieder eine höchst anschauliche, lehrreiche Schilderung jenes Umwandlungsprozesses verbinden, der ihn, wie ähnliche andere Übergangsperioden, ausnehmend fesselte.